1. Acknowledgements

    This conference would not have been possible without the generous funding of The Henry Moore Foundation and the UCL Grand Challenges (‘Gained in Translation’). A special thank you goes to Ian Scott, Principal Facilitator, UCL Grand Challenges. 

    We are also very grateful to our two institutions, University College London’s Department of Scandinavian Studies (SELCS, School of European Languages, Culture & Society), and Kingston University’s Visual and Material Culture Research Centre for all the practical help and assistance received throughout the organisation of the symposium. In particular, we would like to thank Dr Claire Thomson, Head of Department and Lecturer in Scandinavian Film, Scandinavian Studies, and Prof Fran Lloyd, Associate Dean Research & Enterprise, Faculty of Art, Design & Architecture, Kingston University. 

    A special thank you goes to our invited guest speakers. We would like to thank Dr Linda Hinners, Curator of Paintings and Sculpture, National Museum, Stockholm, and Prof David Bindman, Emeritus Durning-Lawrence Professor of the History of Art, University College London, and to Stig Miss, Director of Thorvaldsens Museum. We are very grateful to Dr Marjorie Trusted, Senior Curator of Sculpture, V&A, for supporting this conference from its very conception. 

    Finally we would like to thank the UCL Art Museum, UCL Special Collections and Prof David Bindman for their help and support in arranging the pop-up exhibition on Thorvaldsen and Karin Löwenadler. Thank you especially to Andrea Frederickson, Krisztina Lakoi and Martine Rouleau (UCL Art Museum), and to Gill Furlong, Tabitha Tuckett and Mandy Wise (UCL Special Collections). 

  2. The Sculptural Mobilities Symposium

    The Sculptural Mobilities Symposium

  3. Photos from the Pop-Up Exhibition of Drawings of Thorvaldsen’s Works and of a Male Nude painted by Karin Lowenadler

  4. Pre-Event Abstract

    Dr Claire Thomson 

    Lecturer in Scandinavian Film and Head of UCL Scandinavian Studies, University College London 

    Dreyer, Thorvaldsen and Venus 

    To mark the centenary of Copenhagen’s Thorvaldsen Museum, the great Danish director Carl Theodor Dreyer was commissioned to make a short film about the sculptor’s work. This film was one of a dozen educational shorts which Dreyer was involved in writing or directing during the 1940s and 1950s, a period book-ended by his two full-length masterpieces Vredens Dag (Day of Wrath, 1943) and Ordet (The Word, 1955). All Dreyer’s short films were commissioned by Dansk Kulturfilm, a government agency responsible for producing some 400 short films to educate and inform the Danish populace on every subject under the sun, from electronics to architecture to health to car safety. Dreyer’s short film Thorvaldsen thus stands as a product of a welfare state in which film was strategically employed not just to keep citizens healthy, safe and well-informed, but also to provide democratic access to national culture. This particular film, however, is also a lodestone for Dreyer’s own interest in the encounter of film and sculpture which, as this short presentation will suggest, is in evidence throughout his career. 

    A longer version of this presentation can be found at: http://english.carlthdreyer.dk/AboutDreyer/Visual-style/The-Artists-Touch-Dreyer-Thorvaldsen-Venus.aspx   

    Read more, and view the film, at http://english.carlthdreyer.dk/Films/Thorvaldsen.aspx 

    Followed by a screening of Thorvaldsen (dir. Carl Th. Dreyer, 1949, 11 mins) 

    Dr Claire Thomson is a specialist in Scandinavian Cinema, and currently Head of Department of UCL Scandinavian Studies. She is the author of Thomas Vinterberg’s FESTEN (University of Washington Press, July 2013) and editor of Northern Constellations: New Readings in Nordic Cinema (Norvik Press, 2006). In 2013-14 she will be a visiting researcher at the Danish Film Institute in Copenhagen, working on a book provisionally entitled Short Films for a Small Nation: Dansk Kulturfilm and the Welfare State in Denmark, 1932-1966. 

  5. Symposium Abstracts

    Dr Francesco Freddolini 

    Assistant Professor of Art History at Luther College, University of Regina, Canada 

    Denmark and the International Mobility of Italian Sculpture, c. 1709-1725 

    In 1709 Frederick IV, King of Denmark, met the sculptor Giovanni Baratta in Florence. This encounter changed the artist’s career and positioned Denmark at the forefront of European sculptural patronage: for 15 years the flow of marbles from Baratta’s workshop to Denmark was incessant. This paper investigates Frederick IV’s international patronage by situating Denmark within the context of European sculptural mobility, and exploring its influence on other countries, with special reference to England. I will also explore how Frederick IV participated in the early eighteenth-century European circulation of Italian marbles for palaces and gardens, from Russia, to Germany, to Spain. Furthermore, I will argue how Frederick IV’s interest in sculpture can be better understood as a competition against Sweden, following the looting of Danish public sculpture by Charles X. The Hercules and the Nemean Lion by Baratta, represented an attempt replace the looted Hercules by Adriaen de Vries, and the marbles sent from Italy conferred a new ‘European’ magnificence to the Danish palaces. The relations between Denmark and Italy help us investigate the potential instability of artworks, once they are put in motion across cultures. If, for instance, the Hercules had a meaning related to a long-standing Florentine tradition for Giovanni Baratta, it acquired new meanings — and therefore a new agency — once displayed in its Danish context. 

    Francesco Freddolini is assistant professor of art history at Luther College, University of Regina, Canada. He obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Pisa, Italy, and has received numerous fellowships, including the Getty Research Institute, The Huntington Library, the Smithsonian American Art Museum, the Francis Haskell Memorial Grant. His research focuses on material histories of early modern sculpture and on the role of images in court societies. He has published extensively on Baroque sculpture, and his book Giovanni Baratta (1670- 1747): scultura e industria del marmo tra la Toscana e le corti d’Europa will be published in April 2013 by L’Erma di Bretschneider, Rome. 

    Cynthia Osiecki PhD Fellow, Interdisciplinary Research Training Group ‘Baltic Borderlands’ at the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität, Greifswald 

    The Import of Flemish Sculpture into Sweden’s Courts in the Second half of the Sixteenth Century 

    The mobility of Netherlandish sculptors in the Baltic Area is under-researched. Sources are fragmented and raise many questions. Many sculptors migrated northwards from the Southern Netherlands after 1550, when the political instability of the Netherlands was increasing, resulting in the commencement of the Eighty Years’ War in 1568. They took with them the style of the Antwerp sculptor Cornelis Floris (1514-1575) and the ornamental prints of Hans Vredeman de Vries (1527 - c. 1607) and Cornelis Bos (1506/1510-1555), among others, which were printed in Antwerp and already popular in the Baltic Sea Area. My paper will focus on the presence of Netherlandish sculpture in Sweden and the network supporting commissions for Netherlandish sculptors. In contrast to other countries around the Baltic Sea, Sweden had no representative from the Floris workshop working there. Yet because of the mobility of Floris’ artworks, prints and his pupils, patrons in Sweden could easily obtain artworks in the Floris style. Willem Boy(en) (c. 1525-1595) may be seen as a key figure in this respect as he was working for the Swedish kings Erik XIV and Johann III. After Boyen’s death in 1595, the Swedish king Sigismund III Vasa (1566-1632) imported works by Willem van den Bloocke, a probable Floris apprentice working in Danzig. What lay behind the Swedish preference for Netherlandish sculpture in the Floris style? Did Sweden produce no comparable work within its own borders? 

    In May 2010 Cynthia Osiecki finished her undergraduate study in Art History at the Radboud University in Nijmegen, in the Netherlands. She wrote her dissertation on the sculptor Hans van Mildert (1588?-1638) who was born in exile in Königsberg and worked in Antwerp. In August 2011 Osiecki obtained a Masters degree in Museum Curating at the Free University, Amsterdam. Her thesis concerned the sculptor Willem van den Bloocke who probably trained Van Mildert in his atelier in Danzig, Poland. Since March 2013 she has been working on her doctoral research at the University of Greifswald, Germany, which concerns Netherlandish sculptors in the Baltic Sea Area. 

    Dr Kristoffer J Neville 

    Alexander von Humboldt Fellow at the Technical University in Berlin 

    A Gothic Neptune. Georg Labenwolff’s Sculpture for the Danish Court, 1575-1583 

    The Danish court emerged as a major consumer of sculpture in the later sixteenth century. Nuremberg sculptors provided much of the high-quality work in bronze. This paper will examine the pieces commissioned by King Frederik II for Kronborg Palace in Elsinore (Helsingør), particularly focusing on an elaborate fountain of Neptune made by Georg Labenwolff. This followed a type familiar through the German-speaking world, but was more elaborate and costly than any comparable example. It was recognized as extraordinary both by the Nuremberg public and the city council, and a smaller variant was soon made for Nuremberg. It established the Danish court as a fundamentally important market, and the city council seems to have gone to extraordinary lengths to promote further commissions. Though destroyed in 1659, the fountain is known through descriptions, drawings and prints. This paper will examine the ways that it worked in the quite specific milieu of the Elsinore palace, and specifically the ways that the classical imagery of Neptune and other Greco-Roman gods was consonant with a court that presented itself with pride as the heirs of the Goths, Vandals, and Cimbrians, the conquerors of the Romans. I will argue that these were ultimately not irreconcilable. Rather, this fountain may be a starting point in the conflation of Roman and anti-Roman identities increasingly common in Northern Europe over the following century as courts tracing their roots to the ancient tribes that overthrew Rome simultaneously sought ways to present themselves visually within the conventions of all’antica imagery. 

    Kristoffer Neville (PhD Princeton, 2007) is assistant professor of art history at the University of California, Riverside. He has written on a variety of issues in Northern European art and culture 1550-1750. This paper on the early modern fascination with Gothic ancestry develops ideas explored in other forms in Journal of the History of Ideas and Renaissance Studies. In 2012-2013 he is an Alexander von Humboldt Fellow at the Technical University in Berlin, working on a book on the courts in Copenhagen and Stockholm and their significance for Northern European culture in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

  6. Stig Miss Director of Thorvaldsens Museum, Copenhagen The Making of Sculptural Awareness in Copenhagen: The Contribution of the Works of Thorvaldsen

    Until the end of the 18th century Copenhagen was very poorly equipped with sculpture. This changed completely when the works of Thorvaldsen gradually reached the city from Rome in the first half of the 19th century. The purposes and the impacts of the travelling sculptures varied from private to public commissions, from didactic wishes at the Royal Academy to intentions of public instruction, from embellishment of royal and public buildings to tokens of friendship and collectorship. The reception of Thorvaldsen’s art has varied considerably: From rumours of his rise as an artist reaching Denmark as early as in the first decade of the 19th century to an almost mythical worship of his person and influence during the 19th century; from harsh critique of his art to new attempts at valuing his art as liberated from all context at the beginning of the 20th century.

    Stig Miss is an Art Historian from Aarhus University, Denmark. He was Director of Vejle Art Museum from 1979 to 1989 and has been the Director of Thorvaldsens Museum since 1989. He has curated numerous exhibitions and is the writer and editor of a range of museum publications.

    Dr Elettra Carbone Teaching Fellow in Norwegian, University College London: Reading Sculpture: The Remediation of Thorvaldsen’s Sculpture in Printed Culture

    The Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen (1770-1844) was one of the most influential artists and public figures of 19th- century Europe. From his base in Rome, he undertook commissions for public monuments and private collections in many of the greatest cities of Europe. It is therefore not surprising that Thorvaldsen and representations of his statues appear in print culture the world over. What can these texts – ranging from literary works to travelogues and memoires, from letters to biographies and autobiographies – tell us about the circulation of Thorvaldsen’s sculptures? How are Thorvaldsen’s sculptures remediated through words and what is the local context of this remediation? Besides providing us with information on the sculptures’ journeys, trajectories and contexts of display, these texts also represent a further possibility of mobility for the sculptural objects, spreading their representations often without the support of visual aids such as illustrations and sketches. In which sense can the mobility of these texts help us understand the mobility of the objects themselves and vice versa? In this paper, I will answer these questions analysing and comparing a selection of texts belonging to different literary genres: the English translation and adaptation of Thiele’s Thorvaldsen-biography by Rev M. R. Barnard, The Life of Thorvaldsen (1865); the one-act drama I Rom (1870) by Swedish author August Strindberg; excerpts from the memoires of Swedish writer Ivar Lo- Johansson (Vagabondliv i Frankrike, 1927, and Asfalt, 1979). Which stories of transmission and displacement are behind these individual textual ‘fragments’?

    Dr Elettra Carbone is Teaching Fellow in Norwegian at the Department of Scandinavian Studies (SELCS, UCL). She also works as Editorial Assistant for Norvik Press, a small publishing company specialising in Nordic Literature. She holds an MA in Comparative Literature (UCL) and obtained her PhD in Scandinavian Studies from UCL in 2011, with the thesis Nordic Italies: Representations of Italy in Nordic Literature from the 1830s to the 1910s. She has published a number of articles on the literary contacts between the Nordic countries and Italy and, together with Dr Giuliano D’Amico, she has edited the anthology Lyset kommer fra sør: Italias frigjøringskamp sett av datidens norske forfattere (Gyldendal, 2011). She is currently preparing her thesis for publication as a monograph and co-editing a special issue of the journal Scandinavica on Nordic Publishing and Book History (2013) with Dr Jakob Stougaard- Nielsen.

    Professor David Bindman Emeritus Durning-Lawrence Professor of the History of Art, University College London The Original Drawings for Thiele’s biography of Thorvaldsen in the UCL Library

    A striking discovery was made recently in the UCL Library of over 150 drawings by many of the best Danish Golden Age artists after Thorvaldsen’s sculptures, for the first edition of Thiele’s biography of the artist, published in the early 1830s. The drawings are discussed and how they got to England as part of an unfinished scheme to publish an English edition of the work.

    David Bindman is Emeritus Professor of the History of Art at UCL and a Visiting Professor at Harvard University. His book Warm Flesh, Cold Marble: Canova, Thorvaldsen and their Critics will be published by Yale University Press next year.

  7. Professor Frances A Lloyd 

    Associate Dean Research & Enterprise, Faculty of Art, Design & Architecture, Kingston University 

    “Back in from the Cold”: Karin Jonzen’s Commissions for the World Health Organisation 

    Sculpture acquired a new and unprecedented role in post-war Britain as the art par excellence for embodying and conveying the social and cultural ideals of a ‘New Britain’. One of its first manifestations was the 1948 ‘Exhibition of Open Air Sculpture’ in Battersea Park, organised by the London County Council in collaboration with the newly formed Arts Council. Viewed outside the confines of the gallery with an estimated audience of over 146,000 people, modern and contemporary sculpture in Britain became mobile both in terms of new audiences encountering the work in public spaces and the ensuring desire to display and commission sculpture as part of the new post-war environment. ‘The Festival of Britain’ in 1951 on the South Bank in London highlighted the role of sculpture to act as temporary landmark, a conveyor of modernity, and of civic and social values. Karin Jonzen, an Anglo-Swede, born in London of Swedish parents Uno and Gerda Löwenadler, was the youngest sculptor to contribute to the first Battersea exhibition and through this, and the Festival of Britain, was to establish her reputation as a leading figurative sculptor throughout the 1950s and early 1960s. Part of a Swedish diaspora, in this case drawn by the business opportunities offered by the booming Swedish matchstick industry, Karin Löwenadler trained at the Slade School of Fine Art from 1933 to 1936, winning both painting and sculpture prizes, and a year-long a scholarship to study at the City and Guilds Art School at Kennington. At the age of 22 in 1937 she was runner up for the Prix de Rome in Sculpture. Two years later, in 1939, she won the Sculpture Prize only to have her residency in Rome thwarted by the outbreak of war. 

    Fran Lloyd is Professor of Art History and Director of the Visual & Material Culture Research Centre in the Faculty of Art, Design & Architecture at Kingston University, London. Her research engages with the history and practice of modern and contemporary art with a particular focus on artistic networks and the production and reception of sculpture and performance. Her recent publications include the first study of The Picker House Sculpture Collection in the co-authored volume The Picker House and Collection: A Late 1960s Home for Art & Design (Philip Wilson/I.B.Tauris, 2013); Ernst Eisenmayer: Art Beyond Exile (Austrian Cultural Forum, London, 2012); ‘Forging Artistic Careers in Exile: Ernst Eisenmayer and Kurt Weiler in 1940s Britain’ in B. Dogramaci and K. Wimmer eds., Netzwerke des Exils, Künstlerische Verflechtungen Austauschund Patronage nach 1933 (Mann Verlag, Berlin, 2011); Public Sculpture of Outer South and West London (Public Sculpture of Britain, Volume 13) co-authors D. Thackara and H. Potkin (Liverpool University Press, 2011) and Subtlety and Strength, The Drawings of Dora Gordine, co-author Jonathan Black (Philip Wilson, London, 2009). A DAAD Research Fellow, in 2012 she curated Ernst Eisenmayer: Art Beyond Exile (London and Isle of Man) and is currently researching émigré artists in post-war Britain and co-leading a research project on the history, practice and pedagogy of Kingston School of Art, London, funded by the Henry Moore Foundation.

    Dr Sara Ayres 

    Postdoctoral Researcher, Faculty of Art Design and Architecture, Kingston University 

    Transfiguring Memorials in Norway and Britain 

    This paper compares the mobility of two sculptures: Welsh sculptor Ivor Roberts-Jones’ Winston Churchill (1975) in Oslo’s Solli Plass and Norwegian artist AK Dolven’s Out of Tune (2011), which was installed at the Old Rotunda site on the seafront during the 2011 Folkestone Triennial. Roberts-Jones, perhaps the last significant figurative modernist in Britain, travelled to Oslo several times to help plan the siting of his statue, a version of his famous Winston Churchill erected in Parliament Square in 1973. The controversies surrounding the statue’s Oslo placement articulate the flows and blocks attending this sculpture’s transcultural mobility and its representation of European international relations in the late twentieth-century. 

    AK Dolven’s Out of Tune re-hung a bell, which had been decommissioned after 500 years’ service at Scraptoft Church in Leicestershire.  The bell had been rejected as its pitch no longer chimed with its fellow bells; Dolven’s resituation of the object re-produced it as sculpture and gave its voice, at least temporarily, a new audience and new meaning. 

    The directions of travel of these works are quite different; nevertheless, a comparison of their histories has a great deal to tell us about the contingent processes of sculptural mobility. The case studies further shed light on the development of the intersecting practices of sculpture and memorialisation during the past 50 years. If the failed memorial is a relic - a static, forgotten remainder of history - then can we define the successful memorial as mobile? 

    Dr Sara Ayres was awarded her doctorate at Birkbeck College, part of the University of London, in 2011. Her thesis examined the display of paintings by Klimt in the domestic interior. Since then she has completed a six month project at the Design Museum in London and worked as a postdoctoral researcher at Kingston University on an AHRC-funded project examining the life and work of the Anglo-Welsh sculptor, Ivor Roberts-Jones. Sara is currently working on turning chapters of her thesis into articles: on the display of Klimt’s Danaë in the ladies’ salon of the Josef Hoffmann designed Haus Ast in Vienna; and on Joseph Urban’s presentations of Klimt’s Dancer in New York and Chicago between 1922 and 1930. 

  8. Dr John Sankey 

    Independent Researcher, London 

    The Carlsberg Connection: Danish patronage of English sculptors 1887-1974 

    In 1887 Carl Jacobsen, founder of the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek in Copenhagen, commissioned a replica of Sir Frederic Leighton’s bronze group Athlete struggling with a Python for his collection. The only problem was that he wanted a marble statue. Leighton argued in vain in favour of bronze; but Jacobsen insisted and Leighton informed him in 1888 that work on a ‘beautiful marble block’ had begun. Most of the actual carving was done in the studio of Thomas Brock by the young sculptor Frederick Pomeroy. Jacobsen liked to place a marble bust of each sculptor alongside his work and Leighton recommended Brock, who not only agreed to produce a bust of Leighton but also cannily sent Jacobsen a photograph of his ideal male nude Genius of Poetry. Jacobsen took the bait and all three works were duly shipped to Copenhagen. Finally, in 1910 Jacobsen agreed to buy a bronze replica of Brock’s equestrian group A Moment of Peril for £800 (more than he paid for the Athlete!). 

    The legacy of this ‘flow of sculptural artworks’ from England to Denmark is not quite what Jacobsen envisaged. The Athlete and the Leighton bust were de-accessioned in 1974 and sold to a London dealer.  Genius of Poetry is not in the Glyptotek itself but in a smaller collection in Valby. However, A Moment of Peril sits proudly in the gardens of Rosenborg Castle and is one of Copenhagen’s iconic sculptures. In the changing and uncertain world of sculptural patronage, a score of one out of four is perhaps not so bad. 

    Dr John Sankey was Secretary General of the Society of London Art Dealers from 1991-6. His main sculptural interest is Sir Thomas Brock RA (1847-1922), sculptor of the Victoria Memorial. His PhD thesis (Leeds) was Thomas Brock and the Critics: An examination of Brock’s role in the New Sculpture movement. In 2012 he edited Thomas Brock, Forgotten Sculptor of the Victoria Memorial, a biography by his son Frederick Brock. Published articles in the Sculpture Journal include ‘Thomas Brock and the Albert Memorial’ (vol III 1999) and ‘The Sculptor’s Ghost: the case of Belt v. Lawes.’ (vol 16. 2 2007). 

    Dr Linda Hinners 

    Curator of Paintings and Sculpture, National Museum, Stockholm 

    Establishing a Platform for National Sculpture Production: The Recruitment of French Sculptors to Sweden during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries 

    In Sweden, during the medieval and early modern period, sculptors and sculpture almost exclusively came from abroad. Sculptures by renaissance and mannerist masters were collected by the aristocracy and the royal court, but were also taken as war booties ― for example the sculptures of Adriaen de Vries (1545-1626) at Drottningholm palace. However, the sculpture production in Sweden at this time was very limited. Foreign masters, most commonly from the Netherlands or the German states, were isolated phenomena without regularity. A  national large-scale sculpture production did not take place in Sweden before the late 18th century, when the sculptor Johan Tobias Sergel (1740-1814) returned from Italy. However, the sculpture production manifested by Sergel was in many respects the result of the art politics initiated by the court architect and superintendant Nicodemus Tessin the Younger (1654-1728) and his successors almost a century before. Tessin recruited a whole team of skilled French ornamental sculptors and painters for the interior decoration of the new royal palace in Stockholm in the 1690’s. 

    These sculptors were followed by a new generation of French craftsmen in the 1730’s and 1740’s. The sculptors, specialized in interior decoration, had advanced technical skills and ― just as important ― they had an important knowledge in classical pattern and design, le bon goût. This knowledge  had to be implemented in Sweden in order to constitute a  platform for  sculpture production within the country itself. 

    Dr Linda Hinners is Curator of sculpture at the Department of Paintings and Sculpture, Nationalmuseum (Stockholm). She completed her PhD at the Art History Department, Stockholm University in 2012 with her thesis De fransöske hantwerkarna på Stockholms Slott 1693-1713. Yrkesroller Organisation Arbetsprocesser. She was also involved in the research project “Nicodemus Tessin the Younger. Sources, Works, Collections” at Nationalmuseum between 1999 and 2002 and has published a number of articles, in particular on French artists at the Swedish court. 

  9. Dr Liisa Lindgren Senior Curator, Parliament of Finland, Helsinki Sculpture Hand in Glove with Architecture: The Sculpture Collection at the Finnish Parliament

    Classicism in Finnish architecture during the interwar period led to total works of art in which sculpture played an important role. The collaboration of architects and sculptors reached its climax in the extensive sculptural decorations for the Parliament House designed by architect J. S. Sirén (1889–1961). The Parliament House is eclectic in its architecture and decoration, with modernist elements of functionalism applied in a classical framework. Inaugurated in 1931, the edifice was regarded as a symbol of the young nation’s freedom and independence. Besides its significance in strengthening national pride the building was also a showcase for Finnish architecture, design, fine arts and crafts. Sculpture gave a final touch to the graceful blend of the modern classicism and Art Deco of the interiors. Gunnar Finne (1886–1952) created most of the abundant architectural sculpture, which ranges from building decorations to capitals on columns and reliefs. Gunnar Finne had completed his studies in Vienna at Hochschule für angewandte Kunst with Josef Hoffman in 1908–1909. He deeply respected Antoine Bourdelle’s work and thinking. Important reliefs were also made by Carl Wilhelms (1889–1953), a disciple of Bourdelle at Académie de la Grande Chaumière and Johannes Haapasalo (1880–1965), a pupil of Académie Colarossi and Auguste Rodin. The Parliament’s best-known series of sculptures were produced by Wäinö Aaltonen (1894–1966). Work and Future, completed in 1932, comprised five allegorical figures in gilded plaster. Unfortunately, the dark patina of the posthumously cast bronzes do not bear comparison with the lustre of the gilded originals. Wäinö Aaltonen, a leading artist of the time, was younger than his colleagues. Aaltonen never completed his studies in central Europe due to the First World War. However, he was well informed of new trends and travelled frequently in Central Europe during the 1920s. His classicism was interpreted as purely Finnish but deep down it was part of contemporary trends in European art.

    Dr Liisa Lindgren is a specialist of Finnish sculpture of the 19th and 20th centuries. Her doctoral dissertation, approved in 1996 in the University of Helsinki, dealed with tradition and modernity in Finnish sculpture of the 1940s and 1950s. Her monographic publications Monumentum (2000) and Memoria (2009) analyze public monuments and funerary sculpture in Finland. Lindgren is docent in Helsinki and Turku Universities. She has worked as head curator in Kiasma Museum of Contemporary Art, as senior researcher and acting director of the Central Art Archives of the National Gallery and since 2005 as senior curator in the Parliament of Finland.

    Dr Marjorie Trusted Senior Curator of Sculpture, V&A Medieval Scandinavia and Victorian South Kensington

    My paper will look at the love affair Britain had with medieval Scandinavian sculpture in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Norwegian and Swedish wood stave churches of the eleventh and twelfth centuries were greatly admired by the British, in particular the grotesque intertwined beasts depicted on the churches’ portals. Two of the most celebrated of these medieval churches were those of Urnes and Flaa, just north of Oslo. Of the many hundreds of such wood churches once in existence a few dozen survived in the second half of the nineteenth century, and in 1867 some of the portals were exhibited at the International Exhibition held in Paris in that year. The authorities at the South Kensington Museum (later the Victoria and Albert Museum) had plaster copies made of them, and these are still today proudly displayed in the V&A’s Cast Courts in London. In addition the Museum acquired at much the same time plaster casts of medieval Swedish fonts, and a tomb from Botkyrka in Sweden, dating from the early twelfth century. From the evidence of contemporary comments, these plaster reproductions were of enormous interest, partly because the originals from which they were cast seemed to form a link with the Viking past. During the early twentieth century, at the height of the art nouveau style, contemporary wood furniture was made in the style of these medieval pieces, notably a chair made for the author Arthur Conan Doyle. I will be examining some of the V&A’s plaster casts of the Scandinavian sculptures, and the later furniture made in the medieval Scandinavian style, looking at how and why they came to London during the Victorian period, and their new contexts here.

    Dr Marjorie Trusted is Senior Curator of Sculpture at the Victoria & Albert Museum, where she has been based since 1979. A graduate of Cambridge University and the Courtauld Institute of Art, she has lectured and published on a wide range of sculpture, and specialises in British and Spanish art. Her catalogue of baroque and later ivories at the V&A is due to appear in November this year, and she is currently the lead curator on the renovation of the Cast Courts at the V&A. She is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries.

  10. NEW PRE-EVENT ANNOUNCED 2 July 7.30pm

    Screening and Social Event

    Location: Wilkins Gustav Tuck Lecture Theatre, UCL

    Thorvaldsen (1949) by Carl Theodor Dreyer

    Screening and lecture by Dr Claire Thomson, Lecturer in Scandinavian Film and Head of UCL Scandinavian Studies

    The film screening will be followed by an informal reception in the Wilkins North Cloisters, UCL 

Vignelli theme by Robbie Manson